Sussex N&Q Vol VII 1938-9 & VIII 1940-1
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Volume VII  No. 1 February 1938

SUSSEX CHURCH PLANS.
XLIII.-ST. MARY, STOPHAM.

Stopham Church is best known for its very fine series of Barttelot brasses and its remarkable renaissance glass, with figure subjects and heraldry (the east window being dated 1638), but the fabric is of considerable interest. The north and south doorways are early examples of Norman work and indicate an 11th century building of the nave and the old part of the chancel. The peculiar thicknessing of the walls enclosing the arched altar recess suggests that there was originally an apse, the present arrangement dating probably from the 17th century when the east window was inserted.


An early blocked window can be seen outside in the north wall. The chancel arch and its side recess are of the 14th century. The western tower is post-reformation, perhaps re-built about 1614, the date of one of its bells although it had, no doubt, a predecessor as the other bell is of the 15th century. There was a cell, on the north side of the church, of a female recluse who received half a mark under the terms of St. Richard's will.            W.H.G.

 

NOTES

THE WINE PRESS.—There are many mediaeval representations of a "Wine Press," generally illustrating some biblical mention of it. The representations show a mechanical device, generally fitted with a large screw and intended to squeeze the juice out of the grapes for the purpose of making wine. One wonders if an appliance like this was ever in general use and, if not, why it was shown thus by persons and to persons, who must have been acquainted with the usual process of making wine. No mechanical press need be used, and it would obviously be much less efficient than the time honoured and at one time universally used method of crushing the grapes preparatory to fermentation by treading on them with the bare feet. Wine is made by crushing the grapes so as to break the skin and allowing the crushed grapes, skins, stones and stalks to ferment in a large vat. Fermentation starts spontaneously in a few hours and continues for several days, converting the sugar in the grapes into Alcohol and thus producing wine. When the fermentation commences to diminish, the Must, as the fermenting grape juice is called, is run off into another vat. No Press of any kind requires to be used, except occasionally to squeeze out any " Must " that may have remained in the grape skins after the main body of the " Must " has been run off. Was the process used in the Middle Ages different. The " Wine press " mentioned in the Bible was obviously a tank in which the grapes were crushed by foot.

W. MACLEAN HOMAN.

ARUNDEL RAPE BRIDGES.—In the Accounts for the years 1784 to 1809 of the Overseers of the Parish of Wisborough Green there are the following references to Bridges :

1785. July 10th. Pd Mr. Dan l Hurst Money concerning Pulborough Bridge £10.19.8
1786.  October 3rd Mr. Christr Elliott Bridge Tax                    £21.19.4

This suggests an earlier date than usually accepted for the building of the older of the two existing bridges at the Swan, Pulborough.

    1793. September 28th. Paid Part of Bridge Tax                    £11.11.0
                    October 6th. Paid cash for Repairing Newbridge    £21.8.0

1794. December 14th. Paid Mr. Elliott [of] Loves Part of Mr. Johnson's Bill for the Endictment of Newbridge     £6.6.7

  1795. March 27th. Paid Mr. Woodhatch Part of Mr. Johnson's Bill for the Endictment of Newbridge                 £6.6.7

Mr. Johnson was the Attorney at Petworth who usually did the Law Work for the Parish. These entries give the date for the red brick widenings either side of the old bridge (see S.N.Q. iv, 225).

1797. January 1st. Paid Mr. King [the] Constable the Vagrand & Bridge Tax  £87.17.4

1799. March loth. Paid Mr. Johnson the Indictment of Green Bridge_            £18.19.6

1806. May 26th. Paid towards the Repares of Houghton Bridge_                     £43.18.8
August 3oth. Paid towards Houghton Bridge
                                          £43.18.8

November 28th. Pd towards the Repares of Houghton Bridge_                £21.19.4

1807. January 3rd. Pd Mr. King County Rate                                                 £43.18.8

March 23rd. Pd Mr. King Bridge Tax for Felfam and Bursted                          £21.19.4

1808. January 9th. Pd. Mr. Reeves Bridge Tax                                                £21.19.4

There is also an entry relating to the formal opening or inspection of the Bridge erected by the Duke of Norfolk and Middleton Onslow on the Turnpike Road at Loxwood. The phrase " Necessaries " probably means Refreshments :

1791. February 13th. Expenses at Loxwood Bridge for Necessaries                         7s.

G. D. JOHNSTON.

RIVER ARUN NAVIGATION.—The following entries in the Accounts of the Overseers of Wisborough Green shew that the Canal from the Navigable Arun at Pallingham to Newbridge was constructed and in use very soon after it was authorised in 1785 and long before it was extended to Guildford under an Act of 1813 :

1788. October 8th. Paid Mr. Thos. Pacy for carriage of 5 Chain of Coal from Newbridge     15/-s.
1796. January 5th. Paid for bringing weights from
Newbridge to the Poor House                   6d.
1797. January 1st. Paid carriage
1 Chaldron Coal from Newbridge                                     3/-s.

1806. April 4th. Paid Mr. Harwood Carriage of a Chaldron & Half from Newbridge              6/-s.

1807. March 27th. Paid Mr. Harwood for 1 Chald of Coal from Newbridge                  4/-s.

G. D. JOHNSTON.

THE CHIDDINGLY WOODEN CHALICE.

[The architect in charge of the work now in progress at Chiddingly Church (Mr. E. E. Bowden) has informed me that the Church possessed at one time a wooden Chalice of 17th century work. Such a possession is a great rarity and it is well that the following information should be made widely known. It is taken from the booklet published about the Church and is reprinted here with the consent of the vicar. We hope that Mr. C. Clark of Eastbourne or his representatives will tell us of the present whereabouts of the Chalice.

The date of the first printing of the booklet is 1906. There appear to be two mistakes in the discription of the Cup. The first is that the date is 161o, not 1611, the second is that ' 8 inches across ' is an impossible width in comparison with the height and the illustration given in the booklet proves the error.—ED.]

" A very interesting relic of the Church, viz., a wooden Chalice or Sacramental Cup is now in the possession of Mr. C. Clark of Eastbourne. The Chalice is dated 1611, is in perfect preservation, is 81 inches in height and 8 inches across; has engraved upon it four emblematic designs in panels : ` Lion,' ` Unicorn,' ` Ostrich with Horse Shoe in Beak ' and ` recumbent Stag with corona, collar and chain,' also the following lines :

0 Tafte what drinke the Lord of Lyfe cloth giue :
it is his owne moft deare and precious Blood : who
drinke thereof eternally f hall Line,

who worthily receiue that Drinke fo Good :

such of with honeft and Good heart :

Do heare hif word Sincerely often preacht and read :
they Grow to affurance of salutation neare : the fruit
 of truth Doth them direct and Lead : they feele the

Power of Chriftes Death and Paff ion Working in them
his true Death of all shine : and the Power of his
Gloriouf refurrection : Rayf ing them up a new Lyfe to Beginne :
to them it if
A True and certayne token :

that they from Chrift f hall neuer of be Broken :

Having true faith working by sincere Lone ; their
names are written in heauen aboue.

RICHARD ALLINN + AB XXII OF October, 1610."

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Volume VII  No. 3 August 1938 Page 95

TRANSFERENCE OF ROMAN MATERIAL.-
Nowadays, archaeological evidence is easily falsified, and clear cases should be notified. As recently from Wiggonholt to Pulborough Causeway, so now (May 2nd, 1938) I have seen soil containing much Roman brick and pottery lorried from Alfoldean to Farthing's Bridge, Horsham. Anyone in future digging through the turf of the verge on the S. side of the bridge and finding Roman material would be wrong in inferring that either the bridge or the road was originally Roman.
S. E. WINBOLT.

THE PILT DOWN MEMORIAL.-
On Friday, July 22nd, 1938, a representative company met in the grounds of Barkham Manor in the parish of Fletching and adjoining Pilt Down. The object of their meeting was to witness the unveiling of a monolith to the memory of the late Mr. Charles Dawson on the spot where he made his famous discovery of the portion of the skull of the Pilt Down man, a discovery which at one bound took our knowledge of early man back by half a million or more years.

Mr. Dawson was an amateur but the importance of his discovery has been fully recognised by the scientific world. Mr. Dawson died in 1916 when the disputation raised by his find (made in 1912-13) was in full swing. Now, 22 years later, this monolith is erected to the memory of himself and his discovery by leading men of science and a few others.

The inscription on the stone runs as follows :

" Here, in the old river gravel, Mr. Charles Dawson, F.S.A., found the fossil skull of Pilt Down Man, 1912-13. The discovery was described by Mr. Charles Dawson and Sir Arthur Smith-Woodward in the quarterly journal of the Geological Society, 1913-1915-

The unveiling was performed by Sir Arthur Keith, formerly Conservator and Hunterian Professor of the Royal College of Surgeons who spoke of the revolutionary result of the discovery, followed by Sir Arthur Smith-Woodward who described Mr. Dawson's work from personal knowledge.

Brigadier-General B. G. Godfrey-Faussett, Chairman of the Council of the Sussex Archaeological Society also spoke.

The monolith, of Yorkshire stone, executed by Mr. P. Bridgeman, stands close to the hedge on the west side of the drive leading to Barkham Manor. It is erected there with the permission of the present owner of the manor, Mr. D. Kerr.

The company, including many members of the Sussex Archaeological Society, were entertained with tea in the charming garden of the Manor by the kindness of Mr. and Mrs. Kerr.

 

 

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